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The research programme further specifies the concept of “other diplomacies”, originating in J. Marshall Beiers and Lana Wylie’s edited book Canadian Foreign Policy in Critical Perspective (2010) to refer to the practices of non-state actors that have a diplomatic character and occur across perceived political, cultural and social boundaries, regardless of whether the actors involved speak for a state or support its diplomatic goals. Other diplomacies include such practices as the ways non-state actors represent and constitute “self” and “other”, establish and maintain relationships, and mediate and negotiate, among other functions.

The research aims to identify and study key other diplomats and other diplomatic processes and sites in historical and contemporary Canadian-Asian relations in such realms as development, non-governmental organization, labour, business, diaspora and migration, religion, education, and culture, among others. It seeks to understand how other diplomacies contribute to the contending understandings of Canadian and Asian identities, values, and interests that are (re)produced and circulated.